Epilepsy is a recurrent episodic disturbance of the brain function due to abnormal electrical activity of neuron.
It is manifested as abnormal motor, sensory phenomenon often associated with loss of consciousness.
• Birth hypoxia
• After birth 5% babies
• Brain tumor and abscess
• Air pollution
• Drugs intake
• Emotional and environment disturbance
• Genetic factor
• Traumatic brain injury
• Cyst or brain tumor
• Developmental disorders or neurological diseases or genetic
• Lack of oxygen to brain
• post-traumatic epilepsy)
• Electroencephalogram (EEG) – most common test to find Epilepsy.
• CT SCAN
• Positron emission tomography (PET)
Classification of seizure
Generalized seizure: It is a type in which both hemispheres of brain get effected.
-There is intense rigidity of whole body followed by muscle contraction and relaxation.
It is further classified as follows:
• Tonic clonic- In it patient get informed earlier that he is going to have seizure.
-If he takes his medicines at that time he will not go to further phase.
1. Aura: patient get aware either by any of senses
2. Tonic phase: Lasts for 30sec
-Extreme constriction of all muscles.
-Patient get unconscious sometimes.
-Involuntary urination and stool pass out
3. Clonic phase: Lasts from few minutes to several hours.
-Muscle spasm occur in this phase.
-Alternative contraction and relaxation which seems like patient is shaking.
4. Postictal sleep: What so ever seizure you had faced at end in postictal sleep phase person became so confused and tired that he may sleep for hours.
-Other complaints like headache, mouth bleeding, bleeding from injured area (due to fall) may be noted.
• Absence seizure: In this kind of seizure sometimes it’s not even visible that patient is suffering from seizure.
-In this type patient become unconscious of his environment for sometime . His pupil either may constrict or start moving continued .
-Patient will not fall, no movement, no breathing problems.
-This may occur 2-3 times a day due to bad ventilation.
• Atonic seizure: In this type of seizure sudden loss of muscle tone occurs. Patient will fall down.
Localised seizure: when seizure appear to result from abnormal activities in just one part of brain.
Management of epilepsy
Medications: Epiton (100mg) , Sodium valporate, Valporin
Surgery: in case of tumors and abscess surgeries are recommended
Some important terms associated with epilepsy
• Jack sonian march: condition in which clonic and tonic phase overlaps
• Frog’s paralysis: patient undergoes paralysis for sometime due to fatigue (in postictal phase) but regain movement later just like a frog
• Status epilepticus : condition in which seizure and unconsciousness stage occurs back to back upto 39 minutes. The mortality rate is high in such cases
• Status convulsion: seizure followed by conscious then again followed by seizure.