Hypertension (Blood pressure)- Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment -By Dr. Harmanpreetkaur

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Hypertension (Blood pressure)

Hypertension is the state when the blood flows at the pressure higher than the normal acceptable limits in the body.  A blood pressure (BP) of 130/80 mmHg or higher is considered high blood pressure in people with diabetes.  Some times it may happen that only systolic or only diastolic pressure may be higher without any increase in the other one.

The blood pressure is equal to the cardiac output times the resistance against the vessel walls called peripheral resistance. The pressure in the large arteries varies as the heart contracts and relaxes. Blood pressure varies from person to person. The variables that influence the Blood pressure are age and gender. The factors, which work together to maintain the blood pressure with in normal limits, are:

1. The amount of blood circulating in the blood vessel.
2. The force with which the heart pumps called cardiac output.
3. The elasticity of the large arteries.
4. The caliber of the small arterioles called peripheral resistance.


The idiopathic origin is the most common cause of the hypertension , and this is known to occur without any associative causative pathology. This is known as essential hypertension and in majority of cases this is not risky or harmful. The hypertensive state secondary to some associated causative is called as secondary hypertension. The common causes are-

  1. Secondary lifestyle
  2. Higher salt intake
  3. Improper dietary habits
  4. State of water retention
  5. Diabetes mellitus
  6. Increased blood Thickness
  7. Viscosity

Symptoms of hypertension- includes

  1. Nosebleeding
  2. Headache
  3. Body aches
  4. Breathlessness
  5. Blurred or double vision
  6. Dizziness


The single most important and valid indicator for diagnosis the hypertension is its direct recording and documentation .



  1. Diuretics
  2. Alpha and beta blockers
  3. Calcium channel blockers.Physiotherapy management
    1. Patient education – Education the patient about the risk factors, coping strategies , importance of the exercises and healthy lifestyle.
    2. Aerobic exercises capacity of the patients helps to regulate the cardiac and pulmonary responses during the increased need . This helps to cut down the anxiety and the rise in blood pressure.
    3. Weight reduction
    4. Endurance training
    5. Resistance training
    6. Isometric training
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