• Partoid glands are the largest of three pairs of main salivary glands.
• Lobulated and yellowish brown in colour.
• Weight 25-30 gm.
-Anteriorly: Ramus of mandible (Half way across masseter muscle)
-Posteriorly: Mastoid process (Cover anterior part of sternocleido mastoid)
-Superiorly: External auditory meatus
-Medially: styloid process
Laterally: Paratoid process
Capsule of parotoid gland
• Parotoid capsule is formed by inverting layer of deep cervical fascia.
• Superficial lamina is thick, strong and adherent to gland while deep lamina is thin.
• Superficial lamina is attached to zygomatic arch.
• Thin deep lamina js attached to tympanie plate and styloid process of temporal bone.
Shape: inverted pyramid
-An apex (downwards)
-A base (Superior surfaces)
a. Superficial surfaces
Three border – Anterior, posterior, medial
Structure present within gland
-There are three main structures passing through gland.
1.Facial nerve (Most superficial)
3.External carotid artery (Deepest)
The facial nerve (VII) exists the skull through the stylomasstoid foramen and then pasess into parotoid gland,where it usually divides into upper and lower trunk.
Five terminal groups of branches of facial nerve:
d. Marginal mandibular
e. Cervical branches
• It is formed when the superficial temporal and maxially veins join toghter.
• It usually divides into anterior and posterior branches just below the inferior border of gland.
• Facial vein allow to join anterior division to form the common facial vein.
• Posteior articular vein allow to join posterior division to form external jugular vein.
External carotid artery
• It pieres the lower part of posteromedial surface to enter the gland where it occupies the deep zone if gland.
• It divides into superficial temporal arteries and maxillary arteries
• Maxiallary artery passes horizontally, deep to mandible.
• Superficial temporal artery continues in a superior direction & combine from the upper border of the gland.
1. Parasympathetic supply: Secretomotor: The stimulation produces the secretion watery.
2. Sympathetic supply (Vasoconstrictor) -The stimulation produces thick sticky secretions.
3. Sensory supply:
a.Auriculotemporal nerve (Temporal region)
b.Great auricular nerve (Parotoid fascia)
Parotid duct (Stensop’s duct)
-About 5 cm in length
-It open into the vestibule of mouth opposite the crown of upper 2nd molar tooth.
Course: After emerging from the gland, it runs forward over the masseter between branches of facial nerve.
• It turns inwards at anterior border of messeter and pierces fat, fascia and buccinator muscle. ( 1st bend)
• The parotid duct runs forward (2nd bend) for 1 cm and finally the duct turns medially (3rd bend) and opes into vestibules of mouth.
Blood supply of parotid –
a. Retromandibular vein
b. External jugular vein
a. Superficial parotid lymph nodes
b. Deep parotid lymph nodes.
Clinical anatomy of parotid gland
1.Parotid fascia- Parotid fasica is tough & is supplied by great auricular nerve. Because of tough parotid fascia fluctuation can’t be obtained even in ppresence of the pus.
2. Parotitis- Inflammation of the parotid gland is also known as Parotitis.
3.Parotid abscess- It is very painful due to tough sensitive parotid fascia.
4. Tumours of parotid – Tumour of parotid can be Benign or malignant.
Articles is Submitted by – Deepak singh