Disorders of circulatory system
It is the most common disease affecting the heart and blood vessels.A blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg is considered normal. But the increase in blood pressure beyond 140 mmHg (systolic) and 90mmHg (diastolic) is called high blood pressure (hypertension). A diet filled with oily food, is understood to extend cholesterol level, causing thickening of the arteries which results in high blood pressure.Tobacco smoking increases the guts rate, contracts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. High blood pressure can harm heart, brain, kidneys and eyes.
It is the hardening and thickening of the arteries due to the deposition of calcium salts and cholesterol. Such artery loses the property of distension and its walls may rupture, resulting in the formation of clot or thrombosis in the arteria coronaria leading to heart attack and even death.
Sclerosis of the coronary arteries can cause pain in the chest.This anginal pain usually starts in the centre of the chest and spreads down the left arm. The chest pain may be associated with fear , anxiety or restlessness, , a pale skin, profuse sweating and vomiting (all because of increased adrenergic discharge). The pain lasts for only a few moments.
Heart failure (Congestive heart failure)
It is a set of signs and symptoms that occur when the guts fails to pump an adequate cardiac output. Heart failure is not the same as asystole (when the guts stops beating) or attack (when the guts muscle is suddenly damaged by inadequate blood supply).
Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
The patient may have an acute rheumatic fever, joint pains and infection of throat. Rheumatic fever may cause permanent damage of one or more valves (mitral or aortic semilunar valves), pericarditis and myocarditis. Its causative factor is Streptococcus bacteria.
It is a congenital downward displacement of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
Fibrillation is a condition in which the heart muscle contractsvery rapidly but in an uncoordinated fashion. There are atrial and ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation is life threatening unless it can be stopped by defibrillation. A machine called a defibrillator is used to do this.
It is the complete stoppage of the heartbeat (sudden and complete loss of cardiac function).
Atherosclerosis /Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
It is the deposition of lipids (cholesterol) on the wall lining the lumen of arteries called atheromatous or atherosclerotic plaque. These plaques may completely block the artery. Such plaques, if formed in the coronary artery, reduce the blood supply to the guts and should result in heart attack or stroke.
It is a condition during which the sinus node is normal but the impulses are interrupted at any point along the conducting system of the guts.Thus, impulses don’t follow the traditional conduction pathway. Two common types of heart block are :
AV block : It occurs at the cardiac muscle . The impulses from the pacemaker don’t reach the AV node.
Bundle branch block : It involves one among the branches of the bundle of His.
A clot may form in the lumen of a coronary artery, it is called coronary thrombosis. Therefore, a large portion of the heart muscle is deprived of blood and the patient develops a ‘heart attack’. Anticoagulant drugs like TPA (tissue plasminogen factor) and streptokinase helps to stop the formation and extension of blood clots will occur if given within 4 hours of attack.
Heart attack, also called myocardial infarct (MI), refers to a sudden event during which some of the guts muscle stops working because it not receives blood, usually thanks to a blockage within the coronary artery. Generally, a heart attack occurs when plaque (fat,
cholesterol and calcium) builds up and then ruptures in the coronary artery, creating a place where a blood clot can form (thrombus). Signs of attack : Chest pain; pain or discomfort within the upper body (neck, Back, Arms, jaws or stomach); shortness of breath (usually occurs at an equivalent time as chest pain); cold sweat; nausea or vomiting and light headedness.
Controllable risk factors : High cholesterol; cigarette smoking; excess weight; sedentary lifestyle; stress; high blood pressure; diabetes and certain drugs, like oral contraceptives for ladies who smoke.
Congenital heart diseases
Defects or diseases of the guts from the birth are referred to as congenital heart diseases and are thanks to some error within the development of the heart. It is possible that some of these defects may be due to an infectious disease like rubella (German measles) in the mother or administration of some harmful dangerous drugs during first three months of
pregnancy. alittle number of cases of congenital heart diseases are associated with chromosomal abnormalities.
It is inadequate flow of blood to a part of the heart caused by obstruction to its blood supply.
Do You Know?
- Einthoven is the father of electrocardiography
- Due to decrease in elasticity of arteries heart pumps blood more forcefully in older persons than younger ones.
- Right auricle of heart receives deoxygenated blood.
- Vasoconstriction causes-increase in blood pressure.
- The opening of inferior vena cava in the right atrium is guarded by Eustachian valve.