Muscles of the upper limb – Physioscare

muscles of upper limb
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1. Pectoralis minor

pectoralis minor- by

Origin: Anterior surface of rib 3-5                         

Insertion: Coracoid process (scapula)

Action: Protracts/ depress scapula

Nerve supply: Pectoral nerves

2. Pectoralis major

pectoralis major- by

Origin: Sternum/ clavicle/ ribs 1-6

Insertion: Intertubucular sulcus/ greater tubercle (humerus)

Action: Flexes/medially rotates/ adducts arm

Nerve supply: Pectoral nerve

3. Serratus anterior

serratus anterior-by

Origin: Ribs 1-8

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

Action: Laterally Rotates scapula

Nerve supply: Long  thoracic nerve

4. Levator scapulae

levator scapulae-by

Origin: Transverse process of C1 -C4

Insertion: Upper medial border of scapula

Action: Elevates/ adducts scapula

Nerve supply: Dorsal scapula nerve



Origin: Occipital bone/ spinous process of C7-T12

Insertion: It is inserted into acromion process & spine of scapula, lateral 1/3 of clavicle

Action: stabilizers/ elevates/retracts/ and rotates scapula

Nerve supply: Accossory Nerve

6. Latissimus dorsi

latissimus dorsi- by

Origin: Spinous process of T7-L5, Ribs 9-12, Iliac crest of oc coxae

Insertion: Intertubercular groove (humerus)

Action: Extends/ adducts arm

Nerve supply: Thoroco dorsal nerve

7. Rhomboids(major/ minor)

rhomboid muscle- by

Origin: Spinous process of C7-T5

Insertion: medial border of scapula

Action: Adducts/ rotates scapula

Nerve supply: Dorsal scapula nerve

8. Teres major

teres major- by

Origin: Inferior border of scapula

Insertion: Lesser tubercle (humerus)

Action: Rotates arm medially adducts arm

Nerve supply: Subscapular nerve

9.Teres minor

teres minor- by

Origin: Lateral border of scapula

Inserion: Greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Laterally roates arm

Nerve supply: Axillary nerve

10. Supraspinatus


Origin: Supraspinous fossa (Scapula)

Insertion: Greater tubercle (Humerus)

Action: Abducts arm

Nerve supply: Suprascapular nerve

11. Infraspinatus

suprainfraspinatus muscles- by

Origin: Infraspinous fossa( Of scapula )

Insertion: Greater tubercle( humerus)

Action: laterally rotates arm

Nerve supply: Suprascapular nerve

12. Subscapularis

subscapularis muscles- by

Origin: Subscapular fossa ( scapula)

Insertion: Lesser tubercle( humerus)

Action: Medially rotates arm

Nerve supply: Subscapular nerve

13. Coracobrachialis

coracobrachialis muscles- by

Origin: Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion: Medial shaft of humerus

Action: Flexes/adducts arm

Nerve supply: Musculocutaneous nerve( C5,C6 & C7)

14. Anconeus

anconeus muscles- by

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna

Action: Extends forearm

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

15. Biceps

biceps muscles- by


Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle

Short head: Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion: Radial tuberosity

Action: Flexes forearm

Nerve supply: Musculocutaneous nerve ( C5,C6)

16. Brachialis

brachialis muscles- by

Origin: Anteriorly distal of humerus

Insertion:It is inserted into Coronoid process of ulna

Action: Flexes forearm

Nerve supply: Musculocutaneous  nerve

17. Brachioradialis

brachioradialis mucscles-by

Origin: Lateral epicondyle/ Supracondylar ridge

Insertion: Styloid process of radius

Action: Flexes forearm

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

18. Pronator teres

pronatar tere muscles -by

Origin: Medial epicondyle (humerus)/ COronoid process  (ulna)

Insertion: Lateral shaft of radius

Action: Pronates forearm

Nerve supply: Medial nerve

19. Flexor carpi radialis

flexor carpi radialis- by

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Metacarpals 2-3

Action: Flexes/ abducts wrist

Nerve supply: Median nerve

20. Palmaris longus

palmaris longus muscles- by

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Palmar aponeurosis

Action: Tenses skin of plam

Nerve supply: Median nerve

21. Flexor carpi ulnaris

flexor carpi ulnaris muscles- by

Origin: Medial epicondyle ( humerus),  olecranon process (ulna)

Insertion: Pisiform/ hamate of carpals

Action: Flexes/ adducts wrist

Nerve supply: Ulnar nerve

22. Flexor digitorum superficialis

flexor digitorium superficialis muscles - by

Origin: Medial epicondyle (humerus), coronoid process  (ulna), Shaft  of radius

Insertion: Middle phalanges 2-5

Action: Flexes wrist/fingers

Nerve supply: Median nerve

23. Flexor digitorum profundus

flexor digitorum profundus muscles -by

Origin: Coronoid process, anteriomedial surface of ulna

Insertion: Distal phalanges 2-5

Action: Flexes wrist/ fingers

Nerve supply: Ulnar/ median nerve

24. Flexor pollicis longus

flexor carpi longus muscles- by

Origin: Anterior surface of radius

Insertion: Distal phalanx of thumb

Action: Flexes thumb

Nerve supply: Median nerve

25. Pronator quadratus

pronator quadratus muscles- by

Origin: Distal surface of anterior ulna

Insertion: Distal surface of anterior radius

Action: pronates forearm

Nerve supply: Median nerve

26. Extensor carpi radialis

extensor carpi radialis muscles- by

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Metacarpal 2-3

Action: Extends/abducts wrist

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

27. Extensors digitorum

extesnor digitorium muscles- by

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Distal phalanges 2-5

Action: Extends fingers

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

28. Extensor carpi ulnaris

extensor carpi ulnaris muscles-by

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Metacarpal 5

Action: Extends/ adducts wrist

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

29. Supinator

supinator muscles- by

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus,proximal end of ulna

Insertion: proximal end of radius

Action: Supinates forearm

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

30. Abductor pollicis longus

abductor pollicis longus- by

Origin: Posterior surface of radius/ulna

Insertion: Metacarpal 1, trapezium of carpals

Action: Abducts/ Extends thumb

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

31.Extensors pollicis

exenstors pollicis muscles- by

Origin: Dorsal shaft of radius/ ulna

Insertion: Proximal/Distal end of phalanges 1

Action: Extends thumb

Nerve supply: Radial nerve

32. Extensor indicis

exenstor indicis muscles- by

Origin: Posterior  surface of distal ulna

Insertion: Phalanges 2

Action: Extends index finger

Nerve supply: Radial nerve 

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