Our Indian cricketer icon sachin tendulkar, spinner like anil kumble, mysore express javagal srinath the effervescent VVS laxman and the rock of gibraltar rahul dravid all were in the news recently for sports injuries. For once, these injuries out famed and outshine these cricketing demigods and were discussed and talked by everyone than the cricketers themselves. So, these injuiries fall within the gambit of sports medicine, which is a fact developing science with tremendous potential. With more and more people taking up sports as a carrer, the sports related injury are on the rise.
Sports the medicine similar to all other branches of medicine aims at the complete physical, mental and spiritual well being of a sportsman. A healthy mind in a healthy body is a concept, which is more true to a sportsman than anybody else. Positive thinking fair play and sportsmanship should be the hallmark of a true sportsman. We doctors and the therapist aim to keep a sportsman physically fit, so that the rest of the objectives mentioned above are attained automatically.
Like in other branches of medicine so in sports medicine, prevention is better than cure. To prevent sports injuries, the first step is to ascertain whether a person choosing sports is fit to take it. An unfit person taking up sports is a correct prescription for the future of sports injuries. A fitness testing for those who wish to take up sports as their carrer should include various relevant parameters.
Sports vs fitness testing
- Muscle power should be adequate
- Active joint movement
- Range of passive movements
- Body balance
- Co ordination skills
- Symmetrical and coordinated movement between the limbs and the body
- Elasticity and extensibility of muscles and ligaments
- Presence of any unwanted or accessory movements
- These and a lot of others factors determine whether a person is fit enough to take sports
But one has to remember that fitness testing is not done only at the initial stages but need to be done repeatedly at every stage of an athlete’s or a sportsman life. The second stages of prevention of sports related injuries is assessing whether a sportsman is fit enough to resume the sporting activities after the initial layoff. There is nothing more dangerous than an unfit or a partially fit person resuming the sporting activity. It may spell a doom to his/her otherwise flourishing carrer in sports. A sportsman has to satisfy certain norms before he/she can finally be sent back to the field.
Sportsman has to satisfy the following norms before he/she resumes sports again:
- Should be able to jump from a height of a 1 meter
- Full range of painless active movements
- Slight pain at extreme movements against resistance
- No running limp
- Can fully squat with one or both legs
- Can do full press up
- Can extend the knee with 20 Ib×10 in 45 second
- Person engaged in contact sports should be able to lift 45 Ib×10 in less than 45 second
- The sportsperson should be independ of any strapping or support
- If a person satisfies all the above criteria he/she can he safely returned back to his/her passion i.e sports
Classification of sports injuries
Among the various classification proposed for sports injuries the one propesed by williams (1971) is widely used and recommended.
Among the consequential inquiries
Primary extrinsic is further subdivided into:
- Human: Black eye due to direct blow
- Implemental: May be incidental or due to overuse
- Vehicular: Clavicle fracture due to fall from cycle, etc
- Environmental: Injuries in divers
- Occupational: Jumpers knee in athletes, chondromalacia in cyclist, etc.
- Incidental: strains, sprains etc
- Acute, eg acute tenosynovitis of writs extensors in canoeits
- Chronic, march fracture in soldiers, etc.
Secondary short-term: For example, quadriceps weakness.
Secondary long-term: Degenerative arthritis of the hip, knee, ankle, etc.
Non consequential inquiries are not related to sports, but are due to injures either at home or elsewhere and are totally not connected to any sports.